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Over-the-Counter Medicines

Also called: Non-prescription drugs, OTC medicines
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Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains, and itches. Some prevent or cure diseases, like tooth decay and athlete's foot. Others help manage recurring problems, like migraines and allergies.

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration decides whether a medicine is safe and effective enough to sell over-the-counter. This allows you to take a more active role in your health care. But you also need to be careful to avoid mistakes. Make sure to follow the instructions on the drug label. If you don't understand the instructions, ask your pharmacist or health care provider.

Also keep in mind that that there are still risks to taking OTC medicines:

  • The medicine you are taking could interact with other medicines, supplements, foods, or drinks
  • Some medicines are not right for people with certain medical conditions. For example, people with high blood pressure should not take certain decongestants.
  • Some people are allergic to certain medicines
  • Many medicines are not safe during pregnancy. If you are pregnant, check with your health care provider before taking any medicine.
  • Be careful when giving medicines to children. Make sure that you give your child the correct dose. If you are giving your child a liquid medicine, don't use a kitchen spoon. Instead use a measuring spoon or a dosing cup marked in teaspoons.

If you have been taking an OTC medicine but your symptoms don't go away, contact your health care provider. You should not take OTC medicines longer or in higher doses than the label recommends.

Food and Drug Administration

Start Here

  • Getting the Most from Your OTC Medicine (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish
  • Medicines in My Home: Information for Adults on Using Over-the-Counter Medicines Safely (Food and Drug Administration) - PDF
  • MedlinePlus: Drug Information (National Library of Medicine) - Information on prescription and over-the-counter medicines and supplements Also in Spanish
  • Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicines DrugFacts From the National Institutes of Health (National Institute on Drug Abuse)
  • Over-the-Counter Medicines: What's Right for You? (Food and Drug Administration) Also in Spanish

Diagnosis and Tests

Related Issues

  • Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look (Food and Drug Administration)
  • Generic Drugs Undergo Rigorous FDA Review (Food and Drug Administration)
  • Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers (Food and Drug Administration) Also in Spanish
  • Harmful Interactions: Mixing Alcohol with Medicines From the National Institutes of Health Easy-to-Read (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) Also in Spanish
  • How to Use Liquid Medications (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists)
  • How to Use Transdermal Patches (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists)
  • OTC Medicines: Know Your Risks and Reduce Them (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish
  • Recipe for Danger: Social Media Challenges Involving Medicines (Food and Drug Administration)
  • Using Medicines Wisely Easy-to-Read (Food and Drug Administration) Also in Spanish


  • Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish
  • Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage (Food and Drug Administration)
  • Questions and Answers on Unapproved Chelation Products (Food and Drug Administration)

Statistics and Research

  • What Is Pharmacogenomics? From the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of General Medical Sciences)

Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)

  • Article: Over-the-Counter Medication Use among Parents in Saudi Arabia.
  • Article: The Over-the-Counter Medicines Market in Poland.
  • Article: Recent advances in Chinese patent medicines entering the international market.
  • Over-the-Counter Medicines -- see more articles

Find an Expert

  • Food and Drug Administration
  • Institute for Safe Medication Practices


  • Dos and Don'ts of Giving OTC Cough and Cold Medicines to Your Child (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish


  • Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish


  • OTC Medicines and Pregnancy (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish

Patient Handouts

The information on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Contact a health care provider if you have questions about your health.